Bionic Spirit

Towards a Better AtomicReference

The AtomicReference is like a container for a volatile reference. Usage of volatile references is useful for the issue of visibility in concurrent code, however AtomicReference also supports the atomic Compare-and-Swap operation (CAS for short), which is the pillar of all non-blocking data-structures and algorithms built on top of the JVM, including complex ones like the ConcurrentLinkedQueue, an implementation based on the Michael-Scott non-blocking queues.

However, the interface provided leaves something to be desired:

  • the compareAndSet operation is too low level and for 99% of everything we do in our day to day code it can be replaced with something much better, as we'll see

  • the classes from the java.util.concurrent.atomic package do not implement a common interface, so you can't use an AtomicInteger in place of an AtomicReference

  • AtomicInteger and AtomicLong provide incrementAndGet, which is really useful in practice for keeping track of things in non-blocking counters, but why should that be available only for Ints and Longs? Floats, Doubles, BigInt, BigDecimal and all kinds of numbers can be incremented too

IMPORTANT UPDATE (March 31, 2014): The content of this article is slightly obsolete, though still has pedagogical value. For an up to date article on my Atomic references, checkout the wiki page maintained for project Monifu: Atomic References

This is a simple and working example of how Scala can improve your code tremendously. And I'm basically describing the implementation of my own shifter.concurrency.atomic.Ref. You can:

The Common Interface

Lets start by mirroring the basics of AtomicReference:

trait Ref[T] {
  def get: T
  def set(update: T)
  def compareAndSet(expect: T, update: T): Boolean

object Ref {
  def apply[T](initial: T) = new RefAny(initial)

With a generic implementation that for now just delegates to our inner AtomicReference:

class RefAny[T](initial: T) extends Ref[T] {
  def get = 
  def set(update: T) = 
  def compareAndSet(expect: T, update: T) = 
    instance.compareAndSet(expect, update)

  private[this] val instance = new AtomicReference(initial)

As I was saying, the compareAndSet is too low level. Much better is to work with transformations. How about defining a function with the following signature:

def transformAndGet(cb: T => T): T

And that can be used like this:

val ref = Ref(2)

ref.transformAndGet(x => x + 2)
// => 4

Well, incrementing numbers is not the only thing that you can do. For instance you could store and transform immutable data-structures, like a queue:

import collection.immutable.Queue

val ref = Ref(Queue.empty[String])

ref.transformAndGet(q => q.enqueue("Alex"))

How about that? We got ourselves a non-blocking queue, without having to implement the dreadful Michael-Scott algorithm.

Implementing Ref.transformAndGet is easy:

  final def transformAndGet(cb: T => T): T = {
    val oldValue = get
    val newValue = cb(oldValue)

    if (!compareAndSet(oldValue, newValue))
      // tail-recursive call

I'm using a tail-recursive function, guarded by the tailrec annotation, because that's how I roll. I also find it much more readable and less error-prone. It creates a loop … as long as the compareAndSet operation is unsuccessful, then it keeps trying.

We can also implement Ref.getAndTransform, which returns the old value before the transformation occurred, instead of the update:

  final def getAndTransform(cb: T => T): T = {
    val oldValue = get
    val update = cb(oldValue)

    if (!compareAndSet(oldValue, update))
      // tail-recursive call

We can have other utilities too, like transformAndExtract, but lets move on to our next issue … incrementing numbers.

Of course, with our transformation functions, the presence of a shortcut for incrementing numbers is not that required anymore, however it's still a nice shortcut that can also provide readability and performance advantages. The problem with a generic AtomicReference is that not all reference types are numbers that can be incremented. Fortunately for us, Scala gives us Type Classes and there is already a type class defined in Scala's standard library for numbers: Numeric[T].

What Numeric[T] does is to define, amongst others, the sum operation for type T and of course the value for one. And we don't need more than that.

So we can define our Ref.incrementAndGet function, in a generic way, like this:

  def incrementAndGet(implicit num : Numeric[T]) =
    transformAndGet(x =>,

And lo and behold, this stuff works for any kind of number, not just Ints and Longs:

scala> val ref = Ref(BigInt(1))
ref: Ref[scala.math.BigInt] = Ref(1)

scala> ref.incrementAndGet
res0: scala.math.BigInt = 2

Best of all, if we try doing this on things that aren't numbers, then it fails with a compile-time error:

scala> val ref = Ref("hello")
ref: Ref[String] = Ref(hello)

scala> ref.incrementAndGet
<console>:9: error: could not find implicit value for parameter num: Numeric[String]

AtomicInteger from Java's standard library already has an incrementAndGet and who knows, it might be more efficient than our implementation. Maybe at some point it will get translated into a single processor instruction. So we can take advantage of that by specializing our Ref for Int:

final class RefInt(initialValue: Int) extends Ref[Int] {
  // ....

  override def incrementAndGet(implicit num: Numeric[Int]): Int =

  private[this] val instance = new AtomicInteger(initialValue)

And then we can make our primary constructor return a RefInt, in case the initial value is an Int. Well, here's how the code in shifter.concurrency.atomic.Ref looks like:

object Ref {
  def apply(initialValue: Int): RefInt =
    new RefInt(initialValue)

  def apply(initialValue: Long): RefLong =
    new RefLong(initialValue)

  def apply(initialValue: Boolean): RefBoolean =
    new RefBoolean(initialValue)

  def apply[T](initialValue: T): Ref[T] =
    new RefAny[T](initialValue)

There is still one difference between a Ref[Int] and AtomicInteger. Our interface will be guilty of boxing and unboxing the integers passed to those functions. And in the wild, using AtomicInteger for cheap and non-blocking counters is really common, so it's a pitty if we'll have performance degradation here.

The fix is easy though. The Scala compiler can specialize our type T for primitive types, if we annotate our type like this:

trait Ref[@specialized(scala.Int, scala.Long, scala.Boolean) T] {
  // ...

In the example, the compiler will specialize the Ref[T] interface for Ints, Longs and Booleans, to avoid the boxing and unboxing overhead.

What this will do is to generate specialized methods for these primitive types. You can inspect the generated interface easily with the javap utility. For instance, let's see what it generates for compareAndSet:

$ javap shifter.concurrency.atomic.Ref | grep compareAndSet
  public abstract boolean compareAndSet(T, T);
  public abstract boolean compareAndSet$mcZ$sp(boolean, boolean);
  public abstract boolean compareAndSet$mcI$sp(int, int);
  public abstract boolean compareAndSet$mcJ$sp(long, long);

Or for incrementAndGet:

$ javap shifter.concurrency.atomic.Ref | grep incrementAndGet
  public abstract T incrementAndGet(scala.math.Numeric<T>);
  public abstract boolean incrementAndGet$mcZ$sp(scala.math.Numeric<java.lang.Object>);
  public abstract int incrementAndGet$mcI$sp(scala.math.Numeric<java.lang.Object>);
  public abstract long incrementAndGet$mcJ$sp(scala.math.Numeric<java.lang.Object>);

So it's basically method overloading done by the Scala compiler. Clearly this adds some overhead in the generated .class files and it might not do what you think it does, so use it only if you really need it.

As I was saying in the beginning, make sure to also (links update March 31, 2014):

Also, you may be interested in using scala-stm, a library for shared transactional memory, that basically gives you the ability to orchestrate multiple atomic references at once.